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Glossary IP Solutions
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I/O (Input/Output) Port A port on the computer to which you can attach hardware, such as a joystick. The I/O is the means by which data is transferred between the computer and its peripheral devices.

IP (Internet Protocol) One of the TCP/IP protocols that provides routing services over multiple networks. IP enables network packets to move data between network segments and to travel across routers. IP is a routing protocol, meaning that it directs datagrams from the source to the destination.

IP Address An identifier for the ISP's server. Often the IP address looks similar to this:

IPCONFIG A utility included with TCP/IP that displays the IP address, subnet mask and default gateway for all network adapter cards on your computer. IPCONFIG is handy for checking a computer’s address quickly. It also can detect bad IP addresses or subnet masks.

ISO/OSI (International Organization for Standardization/Open Systems Interconnect) The ISO/OSI model is a set of standards that define network functionality. ISO/OSI sets standards for cabling, NICs, protocols and so on.

ISP (Internet Service Provider) A company or service that provides access to the Internet for a monthly fee.

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) A file format for graphics. A good format to use on photographs, because the graphic is compressed based on color information. Use JPEG for photographs, in particular.

Kbps (kilobits per second) A measure of data transmission or network speed. 1 Kbps is 1,024bps.

Kilobite A kilobyte (K) contains 1,024 bytes. Your file sizes represented in the Windows Explorer, for example, are listed in kilobytes if the files are small. Kilo- is the prefix for 1,000 in the metric system.

LAN (Local Area Network) A set of computers and other equipment (printers, hubs, and such) that communicate through local cabling using networking protocols. A LAN might refer to a workgroup or client/server network; it might cover computers in one room or office, in a building, or spanning several buildings.

Linux A free operating system that began in 1991. The Linux kernel runs on Intel and Alpha hardware. The program is in the general release and available under the GNU General Public License. There are hundreds of flavors (distributions) of Linux available, including Debian, Red Hat and many others.

MAC (Media Access Control) address An Ethernet address also is called a MAC address. It's a number written as 12 hexadecimal digits 0 through 9 and A through F – as in 0080001021ef. Alternatively, A MAC address might have six hexadecimal numbers separated by periods or colons, as in 0:80:0:2:21:ef. The MAC address is unique to each computer and does not identify the location of the computer, only the computer itself.

MAP Network maps describe how a network is put together. Not only does the map show where the computers and peripherals are located, but it also tracks important information about wiring, networking hardware, and even software used throughout your system.

Mbps (megabits per second) A measure of data transmission or network speed equaling 1 million bits (or 1,000 kilobits) per second.

Megabit A megabit (Mbit) equals 1,048,576 binary digits, or bits of data. In general, a megabit is the equivalent of 1 million bits.

Megabites (MB, M or meg) A megabyte (MB) contains 1,048,576 bytes. Mega- is the prefix for 1 million in the metric system. It is used in representing file size, as well as computer memory and hard disk capacity.